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Foundational Principles
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Foundational Principles of Effective Governance
Adopted: 1998
Revised: 12/2015

To see the Foundational Principles without pop-up definitions, click here.

For a PDF version of the Foundational Principles, click here.


As the corporate entity charged by law with governing a school district, each school board sits in trust for its entire community. The obligation to govern effectively imposes some fundamental duties on the board:

1. The board clarifies the district purpose.

As its primary task, the board continually defines, articulates, and re-defines district ends to answer the recurring question — who gets what benefits for how much? Effective ends development requires attention to at least two key concerns: student learning and organizational effectiveness.

  • Ends express the benefits the school district should deliver, thereby providing the entire system with clarity of purpose and a clear direction. A school board rarely creates district ends; rather, it most often detects them through listening and observing.
  • Ends reflect the district’s purpose, direction, priorities, and desired outcomes and are recorded in statements of core values/beliefs, mission, vision, and goals.
  • In effective school districts, every part of the organization is aligned with the ends articulated by the school board in written board policy.
  • Well-crafted ends enable the school board to effectively and efficiently monitor district performance and assess organizational success (Principle 5).

2. The board connects with the community.

The school board engages in an ongoing two-way conversation with the entire community. This conversation enables the board to hear and understand the community’s educational aspirations and desires, to serve effectively as an advocate for district improvement, and to inform the community of the district’s performance.

  • Community engagement, also called public engagement or civic engagement, is the process by which school boards actively involve diverse citizens in dialogue, deliberation, and collaborative thinking around common interests for their public schools.
  • Effective community engagement is essential to create trust and support among community, board, superintendent, and staff.
  • A board in touch with community-wide concerns and values will serve the broad public good rather than being overly influenced by special interests.
  • The school board must be aggressive in reaching out to the community — the district’s owners — to engage people in conversations about education and the public good. In contrast, people who bring customer concerns to board members should be appropriately directed to the superintendent and staff.

3. The board employs a superintendent.

The board employs and evaluates one person — the superintendent — and holds that person accountable for district performance and compliance with written board policy.

  • An effective school board develops and maintains a productive relationship with the superintendent.
  • The employment relationship consists of mutual respect and a clear understanding of respective roles, responsibilities, and expectations. This relationship should be grounded in a thoughtfully crafted employment contract and job description; procedures for communications and ongoing assessment; and reliance on written policy.
  • Although the board is legally required to approve all employment contracts, the board delegates authority to the superintendent to select and evaluate all district staff within the standards established in written board policy.

4. The board delegates authority.

The board delegates authority to the superintendent to manage the district and provide leadership for the staff. Such authority is communicated through written board policies that designate district ends and define operating parameters.

  • Ultimately, the school board is responsible for everything, yet must recognize that everything depends upon a capable and competent staff.
  • “Delegates authority to” means empowering the superintendent and staff to pursue board ends single-mindedly and without hesitation. A board that does (or re-does) staff work disempowers the staff. High levels of superintendent and staff accountability require high levels of delegation.
  • Delegation is difficult for anyone accustomed to direct action. However, to appropriately stay focused on the big picture and avoid confusing the staff, members of the school board must discipline themselves to trust their superintendent and staff and not involve themselves in day-to-day operations.

5. The board monitors performance.

The board constantly monitors progress toward district ends and compliance with written board policies using data as the basis for assessment.

  • A school board that pursues its ends through the delegation of authority has a moral obligation to itself and the community to determine whether that authority is being used as intended.
  • Unless the board is clear about what it wants, there is no valid way to measure progress and compliance.
  • A distinction should be made between monitoring data (used by the board for accountability) and management data (used by the staff for operations).
  • The constructive use of data is a skill that must be learned. The board should have some understanding of data, but will typically require guidance from the staff.

6. The board takes responsibility for itself.

The board, collectively and individually, takes full responsibility for board activity and behavior — the work it chooses to do and how it chooses to do the work. Individual board members are obligated to express their opinions and respect others’ opinions; however, board members understand the importance of abiding by the majority decisions of the board.

  • The school board’s role as trustee for the community is unique and essential to both the district and community.
  • While the board must operate within legal parameters, good governance requires the board be responsible for itself, its processes and contributions. Board deliberations and actions are limited to board work, not staff work.
  • The board seeks continuity of leadership, even as it experiences turnover in membership. The board accomplishes this by using written board policies to guide board operations, by providing thorough orientation and training for all members, and by nurturing a positive and inviting board culture.

  

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Ends are results or outcomes that the school board determines are appropriate for the district. Ends describe the benefits the community can expect to receive and answers the question: "Who gets what benefits for how much?"

The term "ends" is used here to address the broad questions of why the school district exists and what effect or impact the district will have on students and the community.

The board that concentrates on ends is unlikely to interfere with the staff's work on means, or how the job gets done.

Tools for articulating ends are often statements of core values/beliefs, mission, vision and goals.

The school board fulfills it governance responsibility by adopting written board policy. The board policy manual is a collection of all current policy statements. Policies define board accountability by delegating authority, establishing board processes, and indicating how and when monitoring will occur. They also assure superintendent accountability by articulating district ends, defining operating limits and ensuring legal compliance.

Board policy is the only means by which the board governs. Board conversations and actions ultimately are the result of or contribute to board policy. Boards that focus on policy are doing board work, i.e., expressing ends, connecting with the community, hiring and evaluating the superintendent, delegating authority, and monitoring district performance. In contrast to board policy, administrative procedures are developed by the Superintendent to articulate how staff implements board policy.

Focusing on policy allows the board to take responsibility for itself – the work it chooses to do and how it chooses to do the work. It also limits conversations and actions about and away from staff work, i.e., the responsibilities of running the schools, and the much narrower question of how this work is accomplished.

The action and information required to measure progress toward district ends and compliance with written board policy. The school board assumes responsibility for this ongoing review of school district performance by calling for whatever information is necessary from the superintendent and staff to determine whether that performance is meeting district ends and complying with written board policy.

Effective monitoring of district performance and policy compliance allows the board to demonstrate maximum accountability to the community.

District performance is the progress or lack of progress toward district ends and compliance with written board policies.

Performance measurements may include data on student achievement, school improvement efforts, financial conditions and forecasts, and other factors reflecting educational and/or operational progress.

Community is defined as all those to whom the school board understands itself to be accountable for district performance such as taxpayers, residents, voters, parents, and students.

Community is a subset of all the stakeholders to whom the board has responsibility such as staff, vendors, local government, institutions of higher learning, business owners and leaders, parochial and private schools, and others.

Data are facts, figures or other information collected for the purpose of analysis. Data can be differentiated as "board monitoring data" and "staff management data".

Board monitoring data is necessary for staff accountability to the board and board accountability to the community. It is information required by the board to assess and report district performance. This data assists in gauging progress toward district ends (mission, vision and goals) and policy compliance.

Staff management data is information required by the staff to operate the district. Such data is useful for developing and measuring objectives affecting district operations, staff directives, and student activities.